03-output-range.py - The mul and add attributes.¶
Almost all audio objects have a mul and add attributes. These are defined inside the PyoObject, which is the base class for all objects generating audio signal. The manual page of the PyoObject explains all behaviours common to audio objects.
An audio signal outputs samples as floating-point numbers in the range -1 to 1. The mul and add attributes can be used to change the output range. Common uses are for modulating the amplitude of a sound or for building control signals like low frequency oscillators.
A shortcut to automatically manipulate both mul and add attributes is to call the range(min, max) method of the PyoObject. This method sets mul and add attributes according to the desired min and max output values. It assumes that the generated signal is in the range -1 to 1.
from pyo import * s = Server().boot().start() # The `mul` attribute multiplies each sample by its value. a = Sine(freq=100, mul=0.1) # The `add` attribute adds an offset to each sample. # The multiplication is applied before the addition. b = Sine(freq=100, mul=0.5, add=0.5) # Using the range(min, max) method allows to automatically # compute both `mul` and `add` attributes. c = Sine(freq=100).range(-0.25, 0.5) # Displays the waveforms sc = Scope([a, b, c]) s.gui(locals())